Causes of Retinal Bleeds

An astonishingly high number of children are born with some degree of retinal bleeding.  34% of vaginal births result in retinal bleeding and that number goes up to 75% of children born with the assistance of vacuum-suctioning.  After birth, the eyes continue to be quite fragile.  In fact, there's an astonishingly long list of non-abusive causes of retinal bleeds:

  • Prematurity
  • Cerebral Edema
  • Hypertension
  • Leukemia
  • Meningitis/Sepsis/Endocarditis
  • Vasculitis
  • Cerebral Aneurysm
  • Retinal Disease (eg, infection, hemangioma)
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
  • Anemia
  • Hypoxia/Hypotension
  • Papilledema/Increased Intracranial Pressure
  • Glutric Aciduria
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  • Hypo- or Hypernatremia
  • Arteriovenous Malformations
  • Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis
  • Terson’s Syndrome
  • Respiratory Arrest
  • External Hydrocephalus
  • Accidental Short Falls
  • Accidental Whiplash
  • Haemophilia A, Haemophilia B
  • von Willebrand disease
  • Haemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn
  • Thrombocytopaenia
  • Idiopathic Thrombocytopaenic Purpura
  • Hermansky–Pudlak Syndrome
  • Hypofibrinogenaemia
  • Protein C Deficiency
  • Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasis (Rendu–Osler–Weber Disease)
  • Bacterial Endocarditis
  • High Altitude
  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type 1
  • RetCam Photography in Preterm Infant with Retinopathy of Prematurity
  • Sickle cell Retinopathy
  • Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)
  • Galactosaemia
  • Henoch Schonlein Purpura
  • Oxygen Myelography
  • After Anaesthesia
  • Intraocular Surgery
  • Myeloma
  • Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
  • Meningococcal Meningitis
  • Meningococcal Septicaemia
  • Meningoencephalitis with Rhinovirus or ECHO Virus
  • Raised Intracranial Pressure and Papilloedema
  • Optic Disc Drusen
  • X-linked Retinoschisis
  • Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms
  • Endoscopic Spinal Surgery
  • Tuberous Sclerosis
  • Malaria
  • Dysproteinaemia
  • Therapy with Desmopressin (DDAVP) Nasal Spray
  • In Utero Exposure to Cocaine
  • Pertussis
  • Crush Injury to Chest
  • Chest Compression from Safety Belt
  • Valsalva Retinopathy
  • Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome